New Smoke Detector Rules Go Into Effect On December 1, 2016
Catching many people by surprise, including me, a new change in Massachusetts smoke detector regulations will take effect Dec. 1. The new rules provide that when homes built before 1975 are sold, the house must be equipped with smoke detectors with a 10-year life span. These detectors are sold as 10 year sealed lithium battery power smoke alarms. They can be found at your local Home Depot or hardware store.
Also remember that current rules require photoelectric detectors covering the area within 20 feet of a kitchen or bathroom containing a bathtub or shower. The 10 year sealed detectors are sold with both photoelectric and the older ionization technologies. I found this Kidde 10 Year Kitchen Model at Home Depot selling for $49.97.
As part of this year’s Fire Prevention Week in October, State Fire Marshal Peter J. Ostroskey told the Boston Globe that “what we’ve seen in the past eight to 10 months across the state is that our fatal fires involve homes that have smoke alarms in them, but they are inoperative.” Ostroskey said that as investigators search charred wreckage of fatal fires, they have discovered that batteries have been removed or that the smoke alarms themselves have not been replaced even though they are no longer functioning properly because they are 10 years old or older.
Ostroskey said the 1975 cutoff date was chosen because homes built after that year were already required by the state building code to have hard-wired power supplies for smoke detectors. But even those hard-wired detectors need to have backup batteries replaced and the detectors should be replaced every 10 years, too, he noted.
Now that the summer is over, it’s time to get back to blogging! During the quiet summer months, the Supreme Judicial Court issued an important decision for real estate attorneys and the title community in Bank of America v. Casey(June 16, 2016) (link to case). The SJC confirmed that a statutory curative attorney’s affidavit may be recorded with the registry of deeds correcting a defective notary acknowledgment on a mortgage which otherwise could have invalidated the instrument. This is a very helpful decision, and should result in more titles (and properties) being cleared and sold.
Defective Notary Acknowledgment
In 2005, Alvaro and Lisa Pereira refinanced their New Bedford property with Bank of America, N.A. The Pereiras individually initialed the bottom of each page of the mortgage agreement except the signature page, on which the full signature of each appears. Attorney Raymond J. Quintin, the closing attorney, also signed this page, as the notary to the Pereiras’ execution of the mortgage. The mortgage agreement contains a certificate of acknowledgment (acknowledgment) on a separate page. The Pereiras individually initialed the acknowledgment page at the bottom, but the acknowledgment itself is blank in the space designated for the names of the persons appearing before the notary public, and the Pereiras’ names do not appear elsewhere on the page. Quintin notarized the acknowledgment, affixing his signature and his notary public seal.
Seven years later (which is unexplained in the ruling), Attorney Quintin signed and recorded an “Attorney’s Affidavit, M.G.L. Ch. 183, Sec. 5B” stating that he properly witnessed the Pereiras signing the mortgage and that “through inadvertence, the names of the parties executing this mortgage, Lisa M. Pereira and Alvaro M. Pereira, were omitted from the notary clause.” Parenthetically, these curative affidavits are quite common in the industry.
Approximately six months later, Mr. Pereira filed for bankruptcy and sought to be released from responsibility under the mortgage on the ground that the mortgage contained a material defect — the omission of the mortgagors’ names from the acknowledgment.
SJC–Attorney Affidavits Pursuant to G.L. c. 183, sec. 5B May Cure Defective Notary Acknowledgment
The Court first went over the general rule that a defective notary acknowledgment is usually grounds to void any recordable instrument altogether. Mass. General Laws chapter 183 section 5B provides a cure to this problem by providing that “an affidavit made by a person claiming to have personal knowledge of the facts therein stated and containing a certificate by an attorney at law that the facts stated in the affidavit are relevant to the title to certain land and will be of benefit and assistance in clarifying the chain of title may be filed for record and shall be recorded in the registry of deeds where the land or any part thereof lies.”
The Court then ruled that the curative affidavit recorded by the closing attorney cured the defect and validated the mortgage. The Court said the attorney’s affidavit must comply with the formal requirements of § 5B, attests to facts that clarify the chain of title by supplying information omitted from the originally recorded acknowledgement, and references the previously recorded mortgage. As long as it does that, the problem is solved.
This isn’t a “sexy” opinion, but it is nevertheless important to the real estate bar and community.
This past week, I was honored to give a panel discussion on life after TRID (Truth in Lending Integrated Disclosure Rules) at the Massachusetts Mid-Year Mortgage Conference sponsored by the Warren Group. After my panel, Jim Morrison of Banker and Tradesman interviewed me and here’s the video they produced highlighting my talk.
As I said, life after TRID hasn’t been as bad as we all thought. It’s a good thing that the borrower gets their closing cost disclosures well ahead of the closing. The new Closing Disclosure form, however, is quite convoluted and hard to follow, leaving much to be desired. We’ve gone from a 3 page HUD-1 to a total of 11 pages of closing cost disclosures with the new buyer CD, the seller CD and the ALTA form. Not quite the simplification that CFPB was looking for…
Scroll Down For My Complimentary TRID Rider and Offer Timeline Cheatsheet
I’ve been doing a lot of speaking, and more importantly, thinking and collaborating with loan officers and Realtors, on the impact of the new TRID (Truth in Lending RESPA/Integrated Disclosure) on Massachusetts residential real estate transactions. I know everyone is pretty much burned out with all this TRID talk, but what I will give you in this post is some hands-on, practical advice (like how to fill out an Offer) and forms to help you navigate TRID — best practices, if you will.
Those who are unfamiliar with TRID, the major change is that the Good Faith Estimate is going away in favor of a new “Loan Estimate” and the HUD-1 Settlement Statement is going away in favor of a new “Closing Disclosure.” TRID provides for specific deadlines as to when the Loan Estimate and Closing Disclosure must be delivered to the borrower. If those deadlines aren’t met, closings can be delayed for up to 7 days. For my comprehensive post on the new rules click here.
Change In Deadlines
The first major impact to real estate transactions will be the length of time to complete a transaction. The general consensus is that post-TRID, 60 day closings (from accepted offer) will be the norm. Will lenders be able to do 45 day closings? Yes, but only if all parties have their act together, and that’s a big “If.” Thirty (30) day closings will be nearly impossible to achieve, in my opinion.
So what does this mean? It means that all deadlines need to be tighter and that items typically left for the week or two prior to closing (like final readings and fuel adjustments) have to be done earlier in the transaction and closing table adjustments will be impossible.
Deadline to Submit Info For Closing Disclosure
One of the most important new dates will be the date on which all parties must provide the information necessary for the Closing Attorney and the lender to prepare the final Closing Disclosure (new HUD-1). TRID requires that the new Closing Disclosure issue to the borrower 3 days prior to closing (if sent electronically) or 7 days prior to closing (if sent by mail). Lenders will require all information necessary to prepare the CD well before this deadline. This will vary by lender anywhere from 10-20 days prior to closing. Also, some lenders intend to issue the Closing Disclosure along with the Loan Commitment. Accordingly, in my opinion the best practice under TRID is to target 20 days prior to closing by which all information needs to be submitted to the closing attorney. All parties should agree to this date in their purchase and sale agreements.
And by all information, what do I mean? See the graphic to the right.
Final Utility Readings and Oil/Fuel Adjustments
Although the TRID rules specifically allow for some last minute changes to the Closing Disclosure without triggering re-disclosure and delay in the closing, most of the lenders which I’ve consulted with do not intend to authorize last minute changes to the Closing Disclosure which might trigger a re-disclosure delay.
Given this, the Mass. Real Estate Bar Association (REBA) has proposed language in its new TRID rider that all utility readings (water, sewer, oil/fuel) be completed and submitted to the closing attorney no later than 10 days prior to closing. The Closing Disclosure shall reflect payment and adjustments as of the reading date except for real estate taxes which shall be adjusted as of the closing date. No further adjustments will be made on the Closing Disclosure, but the parties are free to make their own estimates of utilities as of the closing date.
This is a change to current practice where it’s common that the final readings be done a day or two prior to closing. I’ve spoken to several agents about oil fuel in particular, and they all say they really don’t want to deal with the hassle under TRID, so they will be recommending to their sellers that they simply gift the oil to the buyer.
Opt for Buyer Credits Instead of Seller Repairs
Seller repairs will cause major hassle and potential delays under TRID. Under TRID, all property repairs must be fully disclosed in the purchase and sale agreement and to the lender. No more “side agreements” or “repair agreements” outside the PS Agreement. Most lenders will require an inspection of all repairs prior to closing and some will do the inspection prior to the issuance of the Closing Disclosure. This would also necessitate a much earlier walk-through by the buyer to inspect those repairs. If there are problems with the repairs, or the insistence on a holdback which would be reflected on the Closing Disclosure, this could delay the issuance of the Closing Disclosure, and therefore delay the closing.
Accordingly, the general consensus is that it will be much cleaner under TRID to forgo seller repairs and instead have the seller agree to a closing cost credit to the buyer. This will eliminate the lender inspection, additional walkthrough and potential of delays.
Also, a quick word about holdbacks at closing. We are not sure how lenders will handle holdbacks at the closing but many of us are of the opinion that lenders will not allow a holdback unless it’s disclosed on the Closing Disclosure. So that effectively means no closing table holdback agreements unless you want your closing delayed to re-issue the Closing Disclosure.
Use a TRID Rider/Addendum for all Offers
MAR, GBREB and REBA have all come out with their own TRID riders. In my opinion, the MAR/GBREB riders don’t sufficiently protect buyers from delays and they fail to address utility/fuel adjustments. The REBA rider is better, but could still use some improvement. So naturally I’ve drafted my own rider (and TRID timeline cheatsheet) which is embedded below. Feel free to use it to help you fill out offers. Whatever rider/addendum you chose, just use something, otherwise your buyer will be at risk of losing their deposit over TRID delays.
Recommend Attorneys Who Specialize In Conveyancing/Closings
Residential real estate closing work was already complicated and highly regulated. In a TRID world, the pitfalls for the inexperienced and non-specialists will be myriad. Now more than ever, Realtors and loan officers should partner with experienced attorneys who specialize in residential closings and are TRID ready and compliant. Do not allow your clients to use their cousin who is a lawyer and knows very little about real estate. It could be disastrous for you and your transaction.
If you have any questions about TRID, Offers, Purchase and Sale Agreements, Riders, etc., please feel free to contact me at firstname.lastname@example.org or 508-620-5352. I would be happy to help you navigate the TRID maze.
MAR and GBREB Release New TRID Addendum In Advance Of Oct. 3 Start Date
In anticipation of the upcoming October 3 start date for the new CFPB-TRID Rules (TILA-RESPA Integrated Disclosure), the Massachusetts Association of Realtors is advocating that several changes in existing practice be adopted as part of the MAR standard form purchase and sale agreement between buyer and seller. The changes, incorporated into a new Integrated Disclosure Addendum-Mortgage (embedded below and available to all MAR members by clicking here), will account for the risk of potential delays resulting from the new TRID rules, as well as impose a requirement on all parties to expedite providing information necessary to generate the new Closing Disclosure. For a comprehensive review of the TRID rules, click here.
Under TRID, there will be a new settlement statement called a Closing Disclosure, which must be issued to the borrower at least 3 days prior to closing. If that does not occur, the closing will be delayed for up to 7 days. Lenders are requiring that the information contained in the Closing Disclosure (fees, closing costs, taxes, insurance, escrows, credits, etc.) be finalized no less than 7-14 days prior to closing, to give them enough time to generate the new Closing Disclosure in a timely fashion. As with any major regulatory change such as this, we can expect delays and speed bumps for closings occurring after Oct. 3.
The new MAR Addendum attempts to allocate risk and responsibility by providing that:
The buyer provides the seller with the name of the lender’s attorney as soon as practicable and no less than 14 days prior to closing
No fewer than 7 days prior to closing, the Seller and Buyer must provide all adjustments and figures (water/sewer, condo fees, taxes, oil in tank, etc.) necessary to prepare the Closing Disclosure. *I would change this to 14-20 days prior to closing.
The closing can be extended up to 3 business days in case of a TRID related delay. *I would change this to 8 days.
No party can sue each other for TRID related delays
Practice Pointer: I do not think the MAR form goes far enough to account for the potential delays arising out of TRID. For example, if the lender does not use e-sign technology the Closing Disclosure would have to be mailed, and the closing would be delayed for 7 days, not 3 days. Moreover, lenders are advising me that they want all Closing Disclosure information in by 20 days pre-closing, so they can turn around the loan commitment and Closing Disclosure at the same time and have a buffer in case of last minute changes. Most importantly, please use some form of TRID addendum to your Offers. Do not wait for the P&S.
Major Change To Current Practices | Expect Delays and Bumpy Road Starting Oct. 3
I just finished yet another closing where a national lender issued the closing documents the morning of the closing, and worse, issued a revised TIL (Truth in Lending) disclosure during the middle of the closing! Under the new TILA-RESPA Integrated Disclosure Rules (TRID) set to start on October 3, this too-common practice would have resulted in a closing delay of up to 7 days, to the dismay of everyone in the transaction.
The new TRID rules are game-changing regulations which threaten to disrupt and delay closings across the country. The new rules, already pushed back once due to industry outcry, go into effect in about 60 days on Oct. 3. I am very worried that lenders, Realtors and closing attorneys are not at all prepared for one of the most significant changes in how we do business. Experts are predicting that closings will be delayed, 60 day loan approvals will be the new normal, and new forms will bewilder buyers. “Expect a one- to two-week delay in closings,” said Ken Trepeta, director of real estate services of the government affairs branch for the National Association of Realtors, when describing the impact of TRID.
Currently, we are finishing one of the strongest spring markets in a decade, but I’m quite concerned that come Fall, the new TRID rules will put the fall market into an ice bath. The best thing that every real estate professional can do is get educated and get prepared now for these changes. August is typically a slow month, so use it to get ready. My team will be doing a roadshow Powerpoint seminar to any local real estate office to explain the new changes. Contact me at email@example.com for more info.
New Closing Disclosure Replacing the HUD-1 Settlement Statement: 3 Day Rule
Under TRID, there will be a new settlement statement called a Closing Disclosure, which must be issued to the borrower at least 3 days prior to closing. If that does not occur, the closing will be delayed for up to 7 days. We are hearing that lenders will require that the information contained in the Closing Disclosure (all fees, closing costs, taxes, insurance, escrows, credits, etc.) be finalized as early as 20 days prior to closing, to give them enough time to generate the new Closing Disclosure in a timely fashion and to account for delays.
What does that mean for us professionals? It means that everything will need to be pushed up and done faster than before. That goes for titles, CPL’s, broker commission statements, invoices for repairs, insurance binders, condo fees, recording fees, title insurance, everything. And it means we can all expect delays as everyone adjusts to the new timetables and rules.
Lenders will require the new Closing Disclosure (embedded below) be signed by the borrower at closing. However, although the Closing Disclosure was intended to replace the current HUD-1 Settlement Statement, the geniuses at CPFB neglected to put a signature line for the sellers on the new Closing Disclosure. I’m not making this up. And we are no longer supposed to use the “old” HUD-1 Settlement Statement. Thus, our title insurance companies are telling us that there may be three settlement statements signed at closing: a Closing Disclosure for the buyer, a Closing Disclosure for the seller, and a combined Closing Disclosure. ALTA has created a new Combined Settlement Statement which can be found here.
Bank of America was asked whether it would require the use of the ALTA model forms, and it stated in a June 9 memo that it prefers the ALTA model if a closing attorney chooses to use a settlement statement to supplement the Closing Disclosure (CD), but specified that the settlement statement figures must reconcile to the CD and a copy of the settlement statement must be provided to the bank. The bank also stated that all revisions to fees and costs will require bank approval and an amended CD. In other words, closing attorneys will not be allowed to revise fees and costs by simply supplementing the CD with a settlement statement.
60 Day Approvals/Closings The New Normal?
With any historic change to how lenders disclose fees and approve loans, there’s going to be a steep learning curve — and delays. You can count on that. Industry insiders say the days of 30 and even 45 day loan approvals may be over, at least temporarily. Sixty (60) day approvals may be the new normal, and agents should build the longer timeframe into their offers and purchase and sale agreements and educate their buyers and sellers accordingly.
Repairs and Walk-Throughs
Since lenders will require all fees and credits finalized 7-10 days prior to closing, this will significantly impact how we handle repairs and credits. Agreed upon repairs also affect how the appraisal is conducted which will further impact the timelines. Experts are suggesting that Realtors consider doing walk-throughs at least 14-21 days prior to closing instead of the typical day before or day of walkthrough, because all repair issues and credits should be set in stone at least 7-10 days prior to closing and changes in fees and credits on the day of closing will not be permitted by the lender. Some experts are even saying that agents should do two walkthroughs, one within the TRID timelines and one immediately prior to closing. Also, under TRID paid outside closing (POC) items will be discouraged by lenders.
Take-away: Realtors should be warned that repairs contained in the purchase and sale agreement will have the potential to delay closings under the TRID rules. Ensure that any repairs are completed 14-21 days prior to closing. Better yet, don’t have the seller make repairs at all; use closing cost credits instead.
No More Back to Back Closings?
Due to the high potential for delays caused by TRID, back-to-back or piggyback closings may be a thing of the past, at least for now. A delay with a closing obviously has a domino effect on a back to back closing. The best practice, at least for the first few months of the new TRID era, is to schedule closings at least 3 days apart. Seller/buyers will have to prepare for this reality with bridge loans, use and occupancy agreements, or temporarily staying with your nearest relatives.
Partner with Trusted and Verified Providers
Now more than ever, Realtors are going to want to partner with lenders and closing attorneys who have been vetted and verified as fully compliant with the TRID rules, so there will be minimal disruption and delay on their transactions. Realtors and loan officers should ask their closing attorneys whether they are compliant with the ALTA (American Land Title Association) Best Practices, which is quickly becoming the standard for TRID compliance. Under the ALTA Best Practices, the attorney will have passed an intensive initial due-diligence screening, a third-party internal audit, background and credit check, extensive review of applicant’s experience, business model and policy loss history, and licensing verification. The closing attorney should also have secure document encryption capabilities and privacy/technology policies in place. My office has been vetted and verified by Stewart Title which has a comprehensive website on the TRID rules. If your buyer wants to use his personal attorney who does not specialize in real estate, explain to him or her why that is a mistake which could ultimately delay the closing.
Bumpy Road Ahead?
In my opinion, the TRID rules are the biggest change to the industry in 20 years, and will be much more difficult to implement than the new GFE and 3 page HUD of several years ago. As discussed above, my team will be doing a roadshow Powerpoint seminar to any local real estate office to explain the new changes. Contact me at firstname.lastname@example.org to schedule your complementary seminar.
Like Superman, A Use and Occupancy Agreement Can Save the Day, But Be Aware of the Risks!
Tom and Mary Ryan, and their two little kids, Abigail and Jake, are relocating from California to the Boston area so Tom can take a job with a local tech company in Burlington. They have already sold their California home, and have been living in a cramped rented condominium in Santa Monica for two months already. Their loan has hit some snags because Tom was out of work for half of 2013, and had some IRS issues, although he is on solid footing now with his new job. The closing is scheduled for the end of this week and they have their cross country movers booked and scheduled and their life is now packed in boxes. Just when they finish packing their last box, their loan officer calls with somber news. “Tom, unfortunately, our underwriting department is dealing with delays getting your tax transcripts from the IRS. We are going to have to push back the closing for about a week. I’m so sorry.” Canceling the movers will cost several thousand dollars, and they will have to cancel furniture shipments as well. To make matters worse, new tenants are supposed to move into Tom’s rented condo unit right after they leave.
While all characters appearing in this work are fictitious, and any resemblance to real persons, living or dead, is purely coincidental, Tom and Mary are in trouble. With the prevalence of back-to-back closings and unforeseen underwriting issues and title defects, these situations are not uncommon. And with new TRID closing disclosure rules coming online in August, which are bound to cause even more loan approval delays, we may be seeing more of these situations in the months to come.
Fortunately, there is a solution to this situation. The sellers are willing to let the Tom, Mary and family move into the home prior to the closing under a Use and Occupancy Agreement. This will enable the buyers to complete their move, move into the house, but before the actual closing. A use and occupancy agreement, however, is not without its risks and downside, which I will discuss below.
One of the most important aspects of a Use and Occupancy Agreement is what it is versus what it is not. The agreement should specify that it creates a mere license to occupy the premises, not a tenancy or a landlord-tenant relationship. This will make it easier to remove/evict the occupants if something goes wrong. In any event, if the sellers are forced to remove the occupants, they will still have to resort to judicial eviction proceedings, which in Massachusetts can potentially take several months. This alone is the biggest drawback of a Use and Occupancy Agreement. The seller should always put language in the agreement that the buyers will be responsible for all attorneys’ fees and costs in case of an eviction.
The parties have to agree on a rental rate, typically based on the fair market rent for the premises or the mortgage and carrying costs. Websites such as www.rentometer.com can give you an idea of what a fair rental rate should be. Your Realtor should give you guidance as well. The rent should be divided by 30 for a per diem basis. You can also charge penalty rent if the term is extended past the original deadline.
The sellers should also include general indemnification language providing that “during the period of occupancy, Buyers shall maintain the Premises in good, clean condition and shall not make nor suffer any strip or waste to the Premises, nor make nor suffer any unlawful or improper use of the Premises and Buyers agree to indemnify Sellers and save them harmless from all liability, loss or any damage arising from such additions, alterations, strip, waste or unlawful or improper use, any nuisance made or suffered on the Premises by Buyers, including their family, friends, relatives, invitees, visitors, agents, or servants, or from any carelessness, negligence or improper conduct of any person.”
Lastly, the buyers should do their pre-closing walk through before they move in under a Use and Occupancy, because once they move in, the home will be a mess for awhile. That way, everyone will be on the same page as far as the property condition goes on the date of move in.
Many attorneys advise clients never to agree to Use and Occupancy Agreements. I am not one of those attorneys. With any risk, it depends on the situation. The sellers need to be comfortable that any delays will be resolved favorably and quickly. Sellers also need to appreciate that despite any language in the agreement, it could take months to remove an occupant if things so south. As long as everyone understands the risks, a Use and Occupancy Agreement can be a life saver.
We had another interesting year in Massachusetts real estate law. From that controversial $60,000 discrimination penalty for asking a prospective renter “where are you from?”, to the influx of Airbnb rentals, to the tragic murder of Realtor Beverly Carter during a showing, and finally Gov. Patrick’s disappointing scuttling of the title clearance bill.
With pro-business Charlie Baker in the Governor’s Office, the fate of the independent brokerage model with the Supreme Judicial Court, and significant regulatory changes to title and closing services, we should expect another eventful year in 2015. Without further ado, I give you my outlook for 2015:
The Charlie Baker Effect
Gov. Deval Patrick was no friend to the real estate industry, often kowtowing to ultra-liberal activists. Case in point was when he killed the title clearance bill which had broad support within the Legislature and would have helped hundreds of homeowners get out of toxic titles. A new era is here with Republican and former CEO, Charlie Baker. Hopefully the Governor Elect will be more supportive of homeowners, developers, real estate agents, lenders and others in the industry. On the legislative table this year will be comprehensive “smart” zoning reform (including 40B affordable housing development reform), another effort at the title clearance bill and maybe even landlord-tenant legal reform.
Will Realtors Be Treated As Employees or Remain Independent Contractors?
The SJC should decide the closely watched case of Monell v. Boston Pads, a class actionbrought by a group of disgruntled real estate agents at Jacob Realty claiming they should be treated as employees instead of independent contractors. Hanging in the balance is the fate of the historically independent, commission based real estate brokerage office model. An unfavorable result at the SJC would essentially turn this model upside-down, requiring brokerages to pay their agents minimum and overtime wages and provide all the statutory benefits afforded to employees. The real estate office as we know it today would likely cease to exist.
CFPB Compliance: New HUD-1 Statement, GFE, TIL, Back Office Procedures
The new Consumer Financial Protection Bureau rules, which go into effect this summer, have the potential to drastically change how loans are disclosed and transactions closed, affecting loan officers, Realtors and closing attorneys alike. Gone are the Good Faith Estimate, Truth in Lending Statement (TIL) and HUD-1 Settlement Statement, replaced with a longer Loan Estimate and Closing Disclosure. The disclosure timetables will be much, much stricter — the final Closing Statement must be given to the borrower no later than three business days before closing. Lenders and closing attorneys will have to work more efficiently and quicker to meet these new deadlines. Closing attorneys who are ALTA Best Practices Certified will have a competitive advantage over those who aren’t. Smaller firms could fall by the wayside.
Housing Court Expansion
This year will likely see the expansion of Housing Court jursidiction state-wide including in Middlesex, Norfolk and Barnstable counties. The Housing Court will be available in high density rental towns including Cambridge, Framingham, Brookline, Waltham, Dedham, Malden and Somerville.
I hope you all have a happy, healthy and prosperous New Year!
Electronic recording (e-recording) of deeds, mortgages and other title instruments has been available in Massachusetts registries since 2007. E-recording capabilities are now fully operational in every Massachusetts registry of deeds except for Bristol South (Fall River/New Bedford). E-recording is proving to be less expensive and faster than the traditional method of recording by sending a title examiner down to the registry of deeds to wait in line. In most cases, a transaction can be “on record” within 30 minutes of an in-office closing. It also eliminates the need to hire a courier or fight traffic and hold closings at Cambridge or other hard-to-get-to registries. E-recording is legal and binding, and accepted by Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac and virtually every major lender.
Middlesex South District Registry in Cambridge (which happens to be the 6th largest registry of deeds in the U.S.) leads the state in total number of documents electronically recorded and also has the lowest average recording time in the United States. Very impressive!
Electronic recording adoption rates have steadily increased with Middlesex (Cambridge and Lowell) leading the way at 40% of all recorded documents. That means, however, that 60% plus of registry business is still done through the traditional in person recording method.
As outlined by Brian Kilfoyle of Simplifile, one of the approved vendors for Massachusetts e-recording, the process of e-recording a document is relatively straight-forward:
Scan original document to create an electronic image (pdf)
Log on to the secure website and enter data about the document and upload the document image
Perform a quick online title run-down to ensure no title issues have arisen since the first title exam
Press “send to the registry” button
The registry verifies the quality of the image and the accuracy of your data
Once accepted by the registry, the document is officially “on record” with recording data and document image immediately available on the registry website
The filer immediately gets an electronic receipt with all recording information along with an electronic copy of the recorded document.
Fees are paid by electronic funds transfer from the closing attorney’s bank account. There is a $5.00 surcharge for every e-recorded document which is typically passed along to the responsible buyer or seller.
Title Insurance and Gap Coverage
One of the earlier concerns about e-recording is the so-called “gap coverage” — dealing with the risk of an attachment or other lien recorded on your title while you are in the process of e-recording. As confirmed by Sarah Supple of Chicago Title, all Massachusetts owner’s title insurance policies will automatically protect the title agent (attorney) and the owner from any intervening liens recorded during the electronic recording process. Ms. Supple noted that the risk of an intervening lien was just as high when the title examiner is physically waiting in line as opposed to online.
Practice Pointer: Ms. Supple recommends that closing attorneys perform one run-down right before submitting the document into the e-recording “queue” and also a “mini-run down” right before disbursement of funds.
Fortunately, a survey of participants at the seminar revealed zero instances of an intervening lien/attachment filed in an e-recording situation.
Hugh Fitzpatrick updated the audience on recent and future developments. As a member of the Registry Technology Commission and advocate, he is working with the Registries, Legislature and Governor’s Council on electronic notarization so documents can be signed and witnessed virtually in a secure system like DotLoop or Docusign. Another goal is to have all of the registries unified in their document search portals like masslandrecords.com. Right now, several registries have their own systems. Hugh also noted that the new CFPB rules are strongly encouraging electronic signing and recording.
Electronic recording is a very exciting development in the real estate title industry, proving to be cost-efficient, accurate and convenient for all parties to the transaction. My Needham office is fully e-recording capable, and we often have the documents recorded within 30 minutes of the closing.
Please note that the BBA Real Estate Section’s Next CLE is Real Estate Attorneys, Are You Ready for CFPB Compliance?Nov. 18, 2014, 3pm at Boston Bar Association. Click here for more info and to register.
Attorney’s Obnoxious Conduct At Closing Factor in Large Award
Every now and then I have a contentious deal where I should be wearing a black and white referee’s shirt instead of a shirt and tie. I’m usually successful in getting everyone to calm down and close the transaction. The case of KGM Custom Home Builders v. Prosky (embedded below) recently decided by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Courtis an example of how really bad behavior at a real estate closing can get a party into big legal trouble.
45 Acres in Mansfield for Sale
The Prosky family of Mansfield entered into an agreement to sell 45 acres of developable land to KGM Custom Builders. The sale price was linked to the number of buildable lots that KGM could permit. After spending over $300,000 in 5 years including weathering an appeal, KGM was able to obtain permits for 60 residential units. However, the Proskys received a better offer for the land and a dispute over calculation over the purchase price arose. Nevertheless, KGM was not willing to back down, and scheduled a closing. Repudiating the contract, the Prosky’s attorney informed KGM that it should calculate the liquidated damages provision in the contract because the sellers were not going to sell.
A closing was nevertheless scheduled at which the Prosky’s attorney showed up with a professional videographer as “defense strategy.” The parties’ attorneys started yelling at each other, and KGM’s attorney shut off all electricity to the building, but the videographer was able to tape with battery power. KGM’s attorney demanded that the Prosky’s attorney produce the closing documents he was supposed to have drafted. The Prosky’s attorney waived the documents in the air, and when the buyer’s attorney went to grab them, he pulled them back and asked if could read them from 2 feet away. KGM, with funds on hand, was ready, willing and able to close, and took the Prosky’s attorney’s antics at the closing as not engaging in good faith, and walked out. At the end of the closing, one of the sellers asked the videographer, “can you explain to me what just happened”? (I would love to see this videotape!).
Anticipatory Repudiation, Breach of Good Faith and Fair Deal, or Both?
Naturally, KGM sued the sellers. The trial judge ruled the sellers had engaged in anticipatory repudiation but he calculated the sales price in favor of the sellers at over $1M, giving the buyer the option of going forward with the deal or taking the liquidated damages because the buyers had also breached the covenant of good faith and fair dealing with their attorney’s antics at the closing. The buyer elected damages, and the judge awarded nearly $500,000 in permitting costs and attorneys’ fees. The sellers weren’t happy with this, so they appealed.
On appeal at the SJC, the legal issue was whether the law allowed the trial judge to provide the buyer with this favorable election of remedies. With few exceptions, outside of the commercial law context, Massachusetts has not generally recognized the doctrine of anticipatory repudiation, which permits a party to a contract to bring an action for damages prior to the time performance is due if the other party repudiates. One such exception occurs where a seller of land informs the “holder of an enforceable option” to purchase that he plans to sell the land to a third party. The high court ruled that this case fit within this exception and upheld the award of damages to the buyer. Naturally, the court seemed particularly upset about the behavior of the seller’s attorney at the closing. In fairness, the SJC did slash the attorneys’ fee award by $120,000, but with statutory interest accruing for several years now, the end result will likely be the same — the sellers are out a lot of cash.
Fortunately, these types of antics are very much the exception rather than the rule at Massachusetts closings. There is really no excuse for this type of unprofessional behavior at a closing, no matter how contentious the dispute. If a party is going to elect to terminate a deal, go ahead and do it without the theatrics. After all, what you say and do at a real estate closing may come back to bite you and your client.
This isn’t law related, but this is just too good of a story not to share with you. I conducted a closing for Derek and Jillian, a nice, young couple buying their first home, a condominium unit in Norwood. The closing itself was rather uneventful but what happened next was certainly not.
The happy new buyers, closing papers in hand, took the elevator down to the office foyer. I started walking back down the hall, but all of a sudden, I heard a female voice shriek then the sound of crying. Thinking something awful had happened, I raced down the stairwell only to find Derek on one knee with diamond in hand, proposing to Jillian in our office foyer! I’m happy to report that she did say yes! Of course I had them pose for a picture which I’ve posted here.
These are the moments which make me really proud and grateful to be a real estate attorney. It certainly put a smile on my face for the rest of the day.
I would love to hear from you readers about similar “love nest” stories. Feel free to share in the comment section.
Court Points Out Potential Problem with Standard Notary Acknowledgment Form
Could the the standard form notary acknowledgment clause used in virtually every recent Massachusetts deed, mortgage and other recorded instrument be defective in certain situations involving power of attorneys? That may be the result of a recent court decision by the First Circuit Bankruptcy Appellate Panel in Weiss v. Wells Fargo Bank (click for link to case).
The ruling is causing quite a bit of angst in the real estate conveyancing community. Since Revised Executive Order 455 – Standards of Conduct for Notaries Public was passed by Gov. Romney in 2004, notaries public and attorneys have been using the approved notary acknowledgment form providing that the document is signed “voluntarily for its stated purpose. ” In the Weiss case, however, the court held that the notary acknowledgment of an attorney-in-fact under a power of attorney was defective as it failed to indicate that the principal has signed under “his free act and deed.”
The facts in the Weiss case are rather unique so it may have limited effect. But it should serve as a wake-up call for notaries public, attorneys and lenders that the better practice may be to use a notary public acknowledgment with the “free act and deed” language as was common before the 2004 notary rules.
Practice Pointer: Going forward, I recommend that real estate attorneys, notaries public and lenders should consider using “free act and deed” language in notary public acknowledgments. See below for form language.
Fact of the Case: Botched Notarization With Power of Attorney
In the Weiss case, a bankruptcy trustee for Chicopee homeowners attempted to use his “strong-arm” powers to void a refinance mortgage. The borrowers took out a refinance loan on their Chicopee home with Wachovia Mortgage. They signed a limited power of attorney to enable a one Shannon Obringer (who I assume was a bank employee) to sign the mortgage. The actual signing of the mortgage occurred in Pennsylvania by a Pennsylvania notary (I assume at Wachovia’s offices). You know this wasn’t going to end well….
The pre-printed notary acknowledgment form on the mortgage was the approved MA Executive Order form, which the notary partially completed as follows:
On this 11 day of June 2007, before me, the undersigned notary public, personally appeared Shawn G. Kelley and Annemarie Kelley by Shannon Obringer as Attorney in Fact, proved to me through satisfactory evidence of identification which was/were ________________ to be the person(s) whose name(s) is/are signed on the preceding document, and acknowledged to me that he/she/they signed it voluntarily for its stated purpose.
Although there was some ambiguity from the wording as to who actually appeared before the notary and the notary failed to fill out the identification form blank space, the Court held that these were not necessarily fatal. However, the Court ruled that the language in the notarization that it was signed “voluntarily for its stated purpose” was fatally defective because it did not sufficiently demonstrate that it was the borrowers’ “free act and deed” by the attorney-in-fact’s signature, as required by Massachusetts statutory and case law. The Court went on to void the mortgage in favor of the bankrupt debtor.
New Notary Public Acknowledgment
Going forward, I would consider using a notarization acknowledgment with the older “free act and deed” language in power of attorney signing situations. The 2004 acknowledgment should be ok for typical individual notarizations. Of course, you should consult with your title company, lender and/or attorney before notarizing in any tricky situations.
CFPB Issues Long Awaited “Know Before You Owe” Mortgage Disclosures, Replacing Truth in Lending, Good Faith Estimate, and HUD-1 Settlement Statement
As part of a continuing overhaul of the home mortgage market, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau today issued a final rule to bolster fairness and clarity in residential lending, including requiring a new good faith estimate of costs for homebuyers, Truth in Lending disclosure and a new HUD-1 Settlement Statement.
The new Loan Estimate will replace the current Good Faith Estimate (GFE) and the current Truth in Lending Disclosure (TIL). The new Closing Disclosure will replace the current HUD-1 Settlement Statement. The new forms are embedded below.
Initial Impressions, Did The CFPB Finally Get It Right?
Overall, I would say that the forms are a major improvement over the existing disclosures, especially the Truth in Lending disclosure. I always joke that the Truth in Lending disclosure should be called “Confusion in Lending” (which usually gives the borrower a chuckle) as it’s nearly impossible to explain even for a trained attorney and sophisticated borrower. That may be rectified now with the new forms — although I still may employ the joke!
The new HUD-1 Closing Disclosure is a longer and more involved form, but it basically just reorganizes all of the information now contained in the current 3 page HUD-1 Settlement Statement, and it appears to be easier to read and explain at the closing table.
The CFPB says that the new forms will replace the existing forms, resulting in a decrease in pages to review — which is a minor miracle in and of itself. A common complaint from borrowers is the sheer number of forms and disclosures signed at the closing, so this is welcome news.
3 Business Day Rule May Be Problematic
As Bernie Winne of the Massachusetts Firefighters Credit Union testified at the announcement hearing today in Boston, the new requirement that the Closing Disclosure (new HUD-1) be provided to the borrower within 3 business days of the closing may pose a problem in some transactions and will certainly result in a major adjustment in current practices. There are often last minute changes in closing figures, seller credits, holdbacks, payoffs, etc., which result in last minute changes. Hopefully, the CFPB will realize this in the upcoming implementation period and relax the rules in certain circumstances. There has already been significant chatter on Twitter and the blogosphere about this new requirement.
Another encouraging note was CFPB Director Cordray’s comments today about the agency pushing for more electronic closings. Fannie Mae has done squat to push e-closings, so hopefully CFPB will take the lead in this important area!
Loan Estimate Disclosure
The new Loan Estimate will combine the disclosures currently provided in the Good Faith Estimate and the initial Truth in Lending statement.
Lenders must provide the Loan Estimate 3 business days after an application is submitted by a consumer, excluding days that the lender is not open (e.g., Saturdays). However, it is not clear based from materials available thus far when a consumer has submitted sufficient information to constitute an “application.”
The Loan Estimate will conveniently provide for the monthly principal and interest payment, projected payments over the term of the loan, estimated taxes and insurance (escrows), estimated closing costs, and cash to close.
It will provide for a Rate Lock deadline.
The Annual Percentage Rate (APR) appears on page 3, despite requests by consumer advocates that it appear in a prominent location on the first page. In addition, it appears that the Bureau did not adopt the proposal to revise the APR calculation to include more items in the finance charge and thereby potentially increase the number of loans that would fail the Qualified Mortgage’s points-and-fees test or would be treated as “high cost” or “higher priced.”
The Closing Disclosure will combine the disclosures currently provided in the HUD-1 settlement statement and any revised Truth in Lending statement. It is now a 5 page document compared to the current 3 page document.
Critically, the Closing Disclosure must be provided at least 3 business days before the closing. Lenders and closing attorneys will have to adapt to this new requirement as currently we usually get the final HUD approved by the lender 24-48 hours before the closing.
Page 1 of the Closing Disclosure carries over much of the Truth in Lending information previously found in the TIL form.
Page 2 and 3 replicate the existing HUD-1 Settlement Statement (pages 1 and 2) outlining the fees and closing costs, adjustments, and commissions charged to the buyer and seller. It also contained a more extensive section on Cash to Close which will be helpful to explain.
Page 4 contains a nice easy-to-read section on the escrow account which is often challenging to explain to borrowers.
The last page is similar to the current page 3 of the HUD-1, providing a quick summary of the loan terms, interest rate, total payments and APR.
A long awaited regulatory and compliance announcement may be coming to Boston next week.
The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau has announced that on November 20, 2013, it will hold a field hearing in Boston on the “Know Before You Owe: Mortgages” rules. Industry experts predict that CFPB will announce its long-awaited new Truth In Lending (TILA)-RESPA integrated disclosures final rule and forms.
The new rules and disclosures will result in another dramatic change in the Truth in Lending, Good Faith Estimate and HUD-1 Settlement Statement used by lenders and attorneys in residential purchase and refinance transactions. A new “Loan Estimate” would replace the current Good Faith Estimate (GFE) and the current Truth in Lending Disclosure (TIL). A new Closing Disclosure would replace the current HUD-1 Settlement Statement. Our prior post on the new closing disclosures can be found here.
The event will feature remarks by CFPB Director Cordray and testimony from consumer groups, industry representatives, and members of the public. The event will be held at the Back Bay Grand, Back Bay Events Center, 180 Berkeley Street, Boston, MA 02116. If I’m lucky enough to get an invite, I will be there and will report back on what happens.
Reviewing this blog, it occurred to me that I’ve never written about real estate agency and designations, which is one of the more confusing aspects of real estate broker agency law. Personally, I think that all the recent disclosure forms and regulations imposed by the Mass. Board of Real Estate, while well-intended, have made this area unnecessarily complicated. I’ll try to explain broker agency in plain English.
The Massachusetts real estate brokerage industry is highly regulated by both state law and regulations, as well as local and national codes of ethics. Under state regulation, once you sit down with a Massachusetts real estate agent to discuss a specific property, the agent should give you a form called the Massachusetts Mandatory Licensee Consumer Relationship Disclosure. The disclosure form describes the five types of agency relationships between and among buyer, seller, and agent:
Seller’s Agent – This is typically known as a listing agent. The real estate agent represents only the seller, not the buyer. The listing agent owes the seller undivided loyalty, reasonable care, disclosure, obedience to lawful instruction, confidentiality and accountability. However, a listing agent must disclose all known material defects in the real estate to buyers.
Open Houses: Open houses are often the cause of disputes as to agency and commissions. Under Mass. regulations, at any open house the listing agent must conspicuously post and/or provide written materials explaining to attendees the relationship they may have with the agent conducting the open house. If a buyer is working with an agent (but the agent is not present at the open house) it’s a good idea to write the name of the agent’s name and leave the agent’s card at the sign-in, otherwise the listing agent could be considered the procuring cause of the buyer which could cause a dispute down the road.
Buyer’s Agent – A buyer’s agent works for the buyer only. The agent owes the buyer undivided loyalty, reasonable care, disclosure, obedience to lawful instruction, confidentiality and accountability. Like a listing agent, a buyer’s agent must disclose any known material defects in the real estate. Some agents are exclusive buyer agent’s and do not take on listings. An advantage of using a buyer’s agent is that you can be assured the agent will work only for you, the buyer, and will have no relationship with the listing agent’s office, as is common with designated and dual agencies described below.
Designated Seller’s and Buyer’s Agent – This type of agency occurs when a listing agent refers an agent working in the same office to represent the buyer. So, two agents in the same office are representing both sides of the transaction. The happens a lot when an unrepresented buyer is introduced to the property at an open house, and the listing agent will refer the buyers to a fellow agent in her office. This is usually the smart and prudent choice to avoid the conflicts inherent in being a dual agent representing both buyer and seller, discussed below. Both buyer or seller must agree to a designated agent agency in writing. The designated agent owes her client the same duties and obligations discussed above.
Dual Agent – A dual agent represents both sides of the transaction — buyer and seller –but can be a risky proposition. The upside for the agent is that he or she keeps the entire commission, but the agency can be fraught with potential conflicts of interest. Dual agency is allowed only with the express and informed consent of both the seller and the buyer. Written consent to dual agency must be obtained by the real estate agent prior to the execution of an offer to purchase a specific property. A dual agent shall be neutral with regard to any conflicting interest of the seller and buyer.
Non-Agent Facilitator – This is the rarest of all agencies. When a real estate agent works as a facilitator that agent assists the seller and buyer in reaching an agreement but does not represent either the seller or buyer in the transaction.
What is a “broker” vs. a “salesperson”? Under the Massachusetts regulations governing real estate agents, a real estate broker runs the real estate office and is the broker of record, overseeing the transactions of all salespersons (agents). A broker must complete 40 additional hours of education and must work for a broker for at least three (3) years before they can move on to licensure as brokers. A broker is responsible for accepting and escrowing all funds, such as a deposit placed on the purchase of a home, and for finalizing transactions. A real estate broker must supervise any transactions conducted by a salesperson. Every local real estate office, even the large ones like RE/MAX, Century 21 and Coldwell-Banker, will have a broker/office manager in charge of the office. The small, independent real estate offices are typically operated by a single broker, with perhaps a handful of salespeople.
A real estate salesperson is what most folks consider real estate agents. When a person first passes their real estate exam, they become a “salesperson.” A salesperson must be affiliated with, and work under, a broker, either as an employee or as an independent contractor, under the supervision of the broker. A salesperson can not operate his own real estate business. A salesperson also has no authority or control over escrow funds.
What Is A Realtor®? A Realtor is a real estate broker or salesperson who is a member of the National Association of Realtors and has agreed to conduct herself under the comprehensive NAR Code of Ethics. Not all real estate agents are Realtors. Membership in the NAR gives a Realtor full access to the entire Multiple Listing Service providing a national database of all sold and listed properties. Realtors can also file complaints against each other and the organization accepts complaints from consumers. Complaints can affect membership status and fines can be levied against agents who are found guilty of wrongdoing by a multi-member panel of their peers. The NAR does not have the ability to suspend a real estate licenses–that action can only be accomplished by the Mass. Board of Real Estate.
Richard D. Vetstein, Esq. is a Massachusetts real estate attorney with over 15 years of experience. If you have any questions regarding real estate agency, please contact him at email@example.com or 508-620-5352.
I’ve been glued to CNN in recent days, watching incredulously as those buffoons in Washington grind our government to a halt. I though for sure that a midnight deal would have been struck, but I woke up this morning with the dreaded news that the government has indeed shutdown. I’ve been trying to get a handle all morning on how this is going to affect the Massachusetts and national real estate market, and here’s what I have so far. (Updated 10/1/13 at 4:30pm below).
Tax Transcripts/SSN Verification Delays
Virtually all federally back mortgage lenders request copies of borrower’s tax transcripts through the IRS and social security numbers through the SSA. According to my friend Rick Moore, loan officer at Lendmark Loans in Framingham, and media reports, the shutdown will apparently either stop or hinder the federal agencies’ ability to issue those verifications, resulting in mortgage approval delays across the board. I know that lenders were furiously ordering tax transcripts and SSN verifications last week, in preparation for the shutdown. If your loan is in the middle of underwriting, speak to your loan officer now. You may be facing a delay in getting a clear loan commitment and a resulting delay in your closing date.
Federal Housing Administration (FHA)
The shutdown’s impact on FHA loans appears to be not as bad as originally thought. HUD’s Contingency Plan states that FHA will endorse new loans in the Single Family Mortgage Loan Program, but it will not make new commitments in the Multi-family Program during the shutdown. FHA will maintain operational activities including paying claims and collecting premiums. Management & Marketing (M&M) Contractors managing the REO portfolio can continue to operate. You can expect some delays with FHA processing.
VA Loan Guaranty Program
Lenders will continue to process and guaranty mortgages through the Loan Guaranty program in the event of a government shutdown. However, borrowers should expect some delays during the shutdown.
The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) confirmed that the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) will not be impacted by a government shutdown, since NFIP is funded by premiums and not tax dollars. Changes to the flood insurance program scheduled to take effect on Oct. 1 will be implemented as scheduled.
For USDA loan programs, essential personnel working during a shutdown do not include field office staff who typically issue conditional commitments, loan note guarantees, and modification approvals. Thus, lenders will not receive approvals during the shutdown. If the lender has already received a conditional commitment from the Rural Development office, then the lender may proceed to close those loans during the shutdown. A conditional commitment, which is good for 90 days, is given to a lender once a USDA Underwriter approves the loan. If a commitment was already issued, the funds were already set aside and the lender may close the loan at its leisure. If Rural Development has not issued a conditional commitment, the lender must wait until funding legislation is enacted before closing a loan.
It is important to note that the traditional definition of “rural” for qualifying communities for assistance will be continued in effect during the shutdown. We expect that language to continue the current definition will be included in whatever funding measure is eventually enacted.
Government Sponsored Enterprises
Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac will continue operating normally, as will their regulator, the Federal Housing Finance Agency, since they are not reliant on appropriated funds.
The Making Home Affordable program, including HAMP and HAFA, will not be affected as the program is funded through the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act which is mandatory spending not discretionary.
Updated (Oct. 1 at 4:30pm). Memo from national mortgage lender:
“There has been no progress today toward a resolution to the government shutdown. Fortunately, the initial impact of the shutdown on mortgage originations has been small. The biggest concerns are obtaining transcripts from the IRS and social security verifications from the SSA. Certain Government produced economic reports will not be available. The Construction spending report due out this morning was not issued. The Non-Farm Payrolls report due on Friday may be affected. The impact on the mortgage market of this lack of data is difficult to anticipate.
At this time, Fannie, Freddie, and Ginnie say they will continue to operate as normal. VA says that they, too, will have no disruptions in services. FHA, however, expects delays due to reduced staffing. Origination companies, correspondent banks, and warehouse lenders may react differently as they access the risks associated with an extended shutdown.”
I had a interesting situation come up the other day during a pre-closing walk-through. Unbeknownst to me or the listing agent, the seller had removed wall-mounted speakers from the living room, leaving gaping holes with the built-in surround sound speaker wires hanging out. Needless to say, the buyers were not happy after the walk through. While we were able to amicably resolve the issue at the closing table, it underscored an important, but often overlooked, aspect of the sale process: how to best handle fixtures and built-in items.
What’s A Fixture vs. Removable Personal Property?
From a legal standpoint, when equipment, decorations, or appliances become affixed or fastened to the real estate, it becomes a fixture and is supposed to be transferred as part of the sale, unless there is an agreement providing otherwise. What are some of the factors determining whether something is a fixture?
Method of attachment. Is the item permanently affixed to the wall, ceiling or flooring by using nails, glue, cement, pipes, or screws? Even if you can easily remove it, the method used to attach it might make it a fixture. Examples include built-in surround sound wiring, lighting fixtures, built-in speakers into the wall, custom built-in cabinetry.
Adaptability. If the item becomes an integral part of the home, it cannot be removed. For example, a floating laminate floor is a fixture, even though it is snapped together. Built-in appliances are properly considered fixtures, especially custom items. That includes your Sub Zero refrigerator and Viking Range/Oven specially selected for the gourmet kitchen. Free standing appliances, however, are generally not considered fixtures.
There are, of course, plenty of gray areas with fixtures. Wall mounted flat screen TV’s, surround sound speaker systems, and decorative mirrors are a few coming to mind. These gray areas are the cause of most disputes surrounding fixtures. How do you handle them? Keep reading.
Disclose All Exclusions/Inclusions In Listing
The opportunity to address fixtures, inclusions and exclusions starts when the home is listed. As suggested by Sudbury, Mass. Realtor, Gabrielle Daniels, agents should identify all potential fixture issues ahead of time, and disclose them on MLS either as included or excluded in the sale. If the sellers want to take that new Bosch dishwasher with them to their new home, they had better disclose it ahead of time so the buyer knows ahead of time.
Carry Over To The Offer and Purchase & Sale Agreement
Referring to this as the “no-surprise” rule, Metrowest Realtor Jennifer Juliano correctly advises that the same exclusions and inclusions in MLS should be carried over and written into the Offer to Purchase with a reference to the MLS Listing Number, and the purchase and sale agreement. The standard form purchase and sale agreement addresses inclusions and exclusions with even greater detail, tracking the law of fixtures in Massachusetts. Below is the standard language in the Greater Boston Real Estate Board form:
Included in the sale as part of said premises are the buildings, structures, and improvements now thereon, and the fixtures belonging to the SELLER and used in connection therewith, including, if any, all wall-to-wall carpeting, drapery rods, automatic garage doors openers, venetian blinds, window shades, screens, screen doors, storm windows and doors, awnings, shutters, furnaces, heaters, heating equipment, stoves, ranges, oil and gas burners and fixtures appurtenant thereto, hot water heaters, plumbing and bathroom fixtures, garbage disposals, electric and other lighting fixtures, mantels, outside television antennas, fences, gates, trees, shrubs, plants, and ONLY IF BUILT IN, refridgerators, air conditioning equipment, ventilators, dishwashers, washing machines and dryer; and but excluding _______.
As you can see, the standard language provides by default that most commonly understood fixtures are part of the sale, such as furnaces, carpeting, and lighting fixtures. Exclusions must be written into the agreement, or by default they may be considered fixtures and included in the sale.
If items are left unaddressed in the agreements, you’ll have a situation similar to mine with the removal of surround sound speakers and a stressful walk-through. Feel free to post in the comments about your own thorny fixture situation!
Richard D. Vetstein, Esq. is an experienced Massachusetts real estate attorney. He can be reached by phone at 508-620-5352 or email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Overview of “Standard” Changes to the GBREB Form Purchase and Sale Agreement
Missing mortgage discharges, problematic probates, “Ibanez” foreclosure issues and other title defects are always an unwelcome surprise to a seller, their Realtor and attorney. But they are unfortunately a common part of life in the real estate conveyancing world. The “standard” purchase and sale agreement form commonly used by Realtors and attorneys (Greater Boston Real Estate Board) provides for what happens in a transaction if a title defect is discovered and cannot be cleared quickly.
The GBREB form, paragraph 10, which is still in widespread use, provides as follows:
If the SELLER shall be unable to give title or to make conveyance, or to deliver possession of the premises, all as herein stipulated, or if at the time of the deed the premises do not conform with the provisions hereof, then any payments made under this agreement shall forthwith be refunded and all other obligations of the parties hereto shall cease, and this agreement shall be void without recourse to the parties hereto, unless the SELLER elects to use reasonable efforts to remove any defects in title, or to deliver possession as provided herein, or to make the said premises conform to the provisions hereof, as the case may be, in which event the Seller shall given written notice thereof to the Buyer at or before the time for performance hereunder, and thereupon the time for performance hereof shall be extended for a period of thirty days.
The standard provision is, unfortunately, outdated and problematic. Accordingly, experienced Realtors and attorneys are taught to modify this provision from the outset as follows:
If the SELLER shall be unable to give title or to make conveyance, or to deliver possession of the premises, all as herein stipulated, or if at the time of the deed the premises do not conform with the provisions hereof, then any payments made under this agreement shall forthwith be refunded and all other obligations of the parties hereto shall cease, and this agreement shall be void without recourse to the parties hereto, unlessthen the SELLER shallelect to use reasonable efforts to remove any defects in title, or to deliver possession as provided herein, or to make the said premises conform to the provisions hereof, as the case may be, in which event the Seller shall given written notice thereof to the Buyer at or before the time for performance hereunder, and thereupon the time for performance hereof shall be extended for a period of thirty days.
These standard modifications ensure that the Seller is initially responsible for clearing any title defects and gives them 30 days in which to do so. If the Seller cannot clear the title defect within 30 days, then both parties have the option of terminating the deal and all deposits must be returned.
Limiting Seller’s Financial Exposure
To limit the seller’s out of pocket expenses to clear title defects, real estate attorneys representing the seller will often insert language such as this at the end of paragraph 10:
Reasonable efforts shall be defined as the Seller’s expenditure of no more than $________, exclusive of all voluntary encumbrances which secure the payment of money which Seller shall be obligated to remove.
The dollar amount is typically anywhere between $1,000 – $4000 depending on the purchase price.
Protecting The Buyer
On the buyer side, what happens if during the 30 day extension cure period, the buyer’s rate lock expires and interest rates are floating up (like now)? Experienced buyer attorneys will often insert the following language in their riders:
Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in this Agreement, if SELLER extends this Agreement to perfect title or make the Premises conform as provided in Paragraph 10, and if BUYER’S mortgage commitment or rate lock would expire prior to the expiration of said extension, then such extension shall continue, at BUYER’S option, only until the date of expiration of BUYER’S mortgage commitment or rate lock. BUYER may elect, at its sole option, to obtain an extension of its mortgage commitment or rate lock or the Seller may elect to pay for same.
This language will ensure that the buyer doesn’t wind up floating up the interest rate river with an untimely rate lock expiration. This situation has come up rather frequently over the last several months as interest rates have increased dramatically.
This is just one, albeit a very important, part of how an experienced real estate attorney works up the purchase and sale agreement. I will do some more posts on other aspects of the P&S Agreement. Stay tuned!
In the advisory, Bar Counsel first reaffirms the SJC’s pronouncement of the critical and mandatory role that Massachusetts attorneys play in a real estate purchase, sale or refinance transaction. The core functions at a real estate closing — certifying good, clear and marketable title, ensuring that title is properly conveyed, and holding and disbursing funds under the good funds law — are all acts constituting the practice of law and must be handled by a licensed Massachusetts attorney. Accordingly, as the SJC held, Massachusetts attorneys must “substantially participate” in all facets of the real estate conveyance transaction.
Following the SJC’s requirement of “substantial participation,” Bar Counsel advises attorneys that they must closely manage and oversee each conveyance transaction:
“It is not the appropriate course for the lawyer’s only function to be present at the closing to hand legal documents that the attorney may have never seen to the parties for signature, and to witness the signatures…A witness only appearance by an attorney would necessarily be inadequate, professionally and ethically, except in the perhaps unlikely event that the attorney is first assured that steps constituting the practice of law are being or have been properly handled by other Massachusetts attorneys.”
There are some closing attorneys and conveyancing mills who hire inexperienced contract attorneys to run around the state to do closings. These attorneys are nothing more than glorified paralegals. Bar Counsel’s advisory opinion calls this unfortunate practice into serious question, unless the managing attorney can ensure that the contract attorney is familiar with the title and file (which is unlikely as Bar Counsel notes).
Bar Counsel is clearly tightening the ethical standards on real estate attorneys. And this is good thing for the profession and consumers alike.
The first step in the purchase and sale of real estate in Massachusetts is the execution of an Offer to Purchase. Historically, agents and attorneys have used the Offer to Purchase Real Estate form generated by the Greater Boston Real Estate Board which has been around since the 1960’s. Recently, however, I’ve been seeing an increase in the use of the newer and more modern Massachusetts Association of Realtors Contract to Purchase Real Estate Form #501. I don’t think most Realtors, attorneys and consumers realize that these two forms have some critical differences, depending whether you are representing the buyer or seller. I’m going to outline the differences and similarities in this post.
The GBREB is clearly a more seller-friendly form, while the MAR form is definitely more friendly to buyers with some caveats that I’ll discuss below. Does this mean that if you are a buyer agent, you absolutely have to use the MAR form? No, but it may be a good practice to get into. Some agents are more comfortable with the older GBREB form, and that’s fine. They just should be cognizant of the differences in the two forms and how it may help or hurt their clients.
The first critical difference in the two forms is the inspection contingency. The MAR form has all inspection related contingencies (home inspection, pest, radon, lead paint, septic, water quality and drainage) built into the form, while the GBREB form uses a separate addendum for each type of inspection. The major difference, however, is what will trigger the buyer’s right to terminate the deal based on an inspection issue. The MAR form is extremely buyer-friendly, providing that the buyer may opt out of the deal merely if any of the inspection results are “not satisfactory.” You can drive a Mack truck through that open-ended language. The MAR form also has some often overlooked waiver language — (1) protecting Realtors from getting sued if the buyer does not conduct inspections, and (2) making it more difficult for a buyer to get out of the deal if she doesn’t provide timely notice of termination based on an inspection issue.
The GBREB form is far less buyer favorable, providing for an opt-out only for “serious structural, mechanical or other defects” the cost to repair of which is a dollar amount to be filled in (usually ranging from $500-$2500).
Both the MAR and GBREB forms give buyers a standard financing contingency, enabling buyers to obtain a firm loan commitment at “prevailing rates, terms and conditions” by an agreed upon date. The contingency language is almost identical in both forms, so there’s no issue here.
The MAR form has a modern provision confirming that the buyer has received all the various disclosures required by law, including the agency disclosure, laid paint, and Home Inspectors Facts for Consumers brochure. The GBREB does not have this provision. The MAR form also has some very agent-friendly waiver of representation/warranty language in this clause, providing that the buyer is not relying upon any of the Realtor’s representations, MLS or advertisting concerning the legal use, zoning, number of units/rooms, building/sanitary code status of the premises. However, I’m not sure this provision would pass legal muster in light of the recent SJC ruling in DeWolfe v. Hingham Centre holding an agent liable for misrepresentations concerning the zoning classification of property. Nevertheless, Realtors can use all the legal protection they can get in this litigious environment!
Which Form Is Better?
There is no easy answer to this question. All things being equal, if I’m a buyer agent, I would go with the MAR form. (And buyer agents are typically the ones who are writing up the offers). The MAR form is more buyer-friendly while at the same time gives Realtors way more legal protection than the GBREB form. If I’m representing the seller and have the opportunity to select the offer form, I’ll go with the old-standby GBREB form for the simple reason that it will give the seller some more leverage in case of a home inspection battle. But I would still seriously consider trading up to the MAR form. I’ve embedded both forms below.
Agents, attorneys, readers what are your thoughts? Post in the comments below.
Richard D. Vetstein, Esq. is a nationally recognized real estate attorney and past Chair of the Boston Bar Association's Title & Conveyancing Committee. For more information about him, click here. You can contact Attorney Vetstein at email@example.com or 508-620-5352.